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Category: Petroleum and Gas

Trickle-down is the solution (to the planetary core formation problem) — ScienceDaily

Scientists have long pondered how rocky bodies in the solar system — including our own Earth — got their metal cores. According to research conducted by The University of Texas at Austin, evidence points to the downwards percolation of molten metal toward the center of the planet through tiny channels between grains of rock. The finding calls into question the interpretation of prior experiments and simulations that sought to understand how metals behave under intense heat and pressure when planets…

Airbag prevents tanker trucks from tipping over

Credit: University of Twente Dr Erik Eenkhoorn has designed a system that can secure liquid loads, making the transport of bulk liquids much safer. Inflatable components prevent tanker trucks from tipping over, and reduce fuel consumption, as well. Erik Eenkhoorn recently graduated from the University of Twente with a thesis on this design. According to the graduate, the existing legislation is part of the reason for countless accidents involving tanker trucks. There are strict rules for securing a solid load,…

Infrastructure optimization tool helps design future bases

Sandia National Laboratories systems analysts Alex Dessanti and Karina Munoz-Ramos review the optimization criteria to select the best combination of equipment to create infrastructure for overseas Army bases. Credit: Randy Montoya. Where do you get your water? How do you generate electricity to cook your food and keep it fresh? What happens to your waste after you toss it or flush it? For soldiers overseas, the answers to questions about basic facilities and services are vital. Since 2013, Sandia National…

New techniques for removing carbon from the atmosphere

Research scientist Tae Wook Kim, left, and professor Tony Kovscek check the status of an experiment in the CT scanner. Credit: L.A. Cicero Of the approximately two dozen medical CT scanners scattered throughout Stanford’s main campus and medical centers, two can be found nestled in basement labs of the Green Earth Sciences Buildings. The scanner duo is being put to some decidedly off-label uses in research led by Anthony Kovscek, a professor of energy resources engineering at Stanford’s School of…

Better injection systems for diesel engines

Material science researchers are working on making combustion engines cleaner. Credit: Shutterstock One of the elements modern diesel engines require to become energy-efficient and clean are precisely controllable injection nozzles using piezo crystals. How exactly these crystals work has not been fully understood to date. In a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, a group of researchers from Leoben has now managed to make this technology more reliable and efficient. Their results are also of interest for medical…

Project uses plastic dialysis waste to produce durable concrete

Dialysis patients could inadvertently improve sustainability in the construction industry, thanks to an innovative Deakin University recycling project that’s turning hospital waste into longer-lasting concrete. A team at Deakin’s School of Engineering is behind the new project, which could ultimately save from the scrap heap the thousands of tonnes of plastic waste created in Australia each year through dialysis treatment. Project leader Dr Riyadh Al-Ameri, a senior lecturer in structural engineering, said the project could solve two problems in…

Converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water, electricity — ScienceDaily

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis have determined how electrocatalysts can convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide using water and electricity. The discovery can lead to the development of efficient electrocatalysts for large scale production of synthesis gas — a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. “The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to fuels is a subject of considerable interest because it offers a means for storing electricity from energy sources…

Museum collections track soot in the atmosphere throughout the 20th century — ScienceDaily

Horned Larks are cute little songbirds with white bellies and yellow chins — at least, now they are. A hundred years ago, at the height of urban smoke pollution in the US, their pale feathers were stained dark gray by the soot in the atmosphere. A new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that the discoloration of birds in museum collections can be used to trace the amount of black carbon in the air over…

Detecting impurities on 3-D components

The fluorescence scanner – an imaging, inline measuring system – inspects components for impurities during the manufacturing process and identifies the exact point of contamination. Credit: © Photo Fraunhofer IPM Impurities adhering to the surface of components can cause problems in later stages of the production process – or even make the entire component useless. A new fluorescence scanner developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM allows specialists to inspect metallic parts for residues of grease, machining…

Near-Earth asteroid CubeSat goes full sail — ScienceDaily

NASA’s Near-Earth Asteroid Scout, a small satellite the size of a shoebox, designed to study asteroids close to Earth, performed a full-scale solar sail deployment test at ManTech NeXolve’s facility in Huntsville, Alabama, Sept. 13. The test was performed in an indoor clean room to ensure the deployment mechanism’s functionality after recent environmental testing. NEA Scout is a six-unit CubeSat that relies on an innovative solar sail for propulsion. It is one of 13 secondary science payloads NASA selected to…