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Category: Petroleum Engineering

Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth — ScienceDaily

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018 to William D. Nordhaus, Yale University, New Haven, USA “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis” and Paul M. Romer, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, USA “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis.” Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer have designed methods for addressing some…

‘Turbidity currents’ are not just currents, but involve movement of the seafloor itself — ScienceDaily

Turbidity currents have historically been described as fast-moving currents that sweep down submarine canyons, carrying sand and mud into the deep sea. But a new paper in Nature Communications shows that, rather than just consisting of sediment-laden seawater flowing over the seafloor, turbidity currents also involve large-scale movements of the seafloor itself. This dramatic discovery, the result of an 18-month-long, multi-institutional study of Monterey Canyon, could help ocean engineers avoid damage to pipelines, communications cables, and other seafloor structures. Geologists…

Supercomputing for better commuting—in pursuit of fuel economy and mobility

A GRIDSMART traffic camera installed at an intersection in Leesburg, Virginia. Credit: GRIDSMART In a project leveraging computer vision, machine learning, and sensors, Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists are working with private company GRIDSMART Technologies, Inc. to demonstrate how stop lights can be programmed to improve fuel economy and reduce emissions while facilitating the smooth flow of traffic. GRIDSMART traffic cameras are already being used by communities around the world to replace in-road sensors traditionally used to detect vehicles and…

Eighth-century skeleton found at Torcello — ScienceDaily

On the island of Torcello, at the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice excavation site, some protagonists of the island’s thousand-year history have begun to emerge. A tomb datable to around 700 A.D. has recently been unearthed by the site’s team of scholars, who hail from universities throughout Italy, under the scientific direction of archaeologist Diego Calaon (a Marie Curie Fellow). “The subject is a young adult, whose burial — not far from the area we imagine was used as a…

Liquid metal discovery to make toxic water safe and drinkable — ScienceDaily

UNSW and RMIT researchers have discovered a revolutionary and cheap way to make filters that can turn water contaminated with heavy metals into safe drinking water in a matter of minutes. Recent UNSW SHARP hire Professor Kourosh Kalantar-zadeh and his former colleagues at RMIT showed that nano-filters made of aluminium oxide could be cheaply produced using virtually no energy from a fixed amount of liquid metal gallium. In a paper published in Advanced Functional Materials, lead author Dr Ali Zavabeti…

Ocean acidification may reduce sea scallop fisheries — ScienceDaily

Each year, fishermen harvest more than $500 million worth of Atlantic sea scallops from the waters off the east coast of the United States. A new model created by scientists at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), however, predicts that those fisheries may potentially be in danger. As levels of carbon dioxide increase in the Earth’s atmosphere, the upper oceans become increasingly acidic — a condition that could reduce the sea scallop population by more than 50% in the next…

Real-word driving produces up to 16 times more emissions, causing 2,700 premature deaths across the EU — ScienceDaily

In September 2015, the German automaker Volkswagen was found to have illegally cheated federal emissions tests in the United States, by intentionally programming emissions control devices to turn on only during laboratory testing. The devices enabled more than 11 million passenger vehicles to meet U.S. emissions standards in the laboratory despite producing emissions up to 40 times higher than the legal limit in real-world driving conditions. Now a new MIT study reports that Volkswagen is not the only auto manufacturer…

Research papers explain the transfer of radium during hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas — ScienceDaily

Radioactivity in fracking wastewater comes from the interaction between a chemical slurry and ancient shale during the hydraulic fracturing process, according to Dartmouth College research. The study, detailed in twin papers appearing in Chemical Geology, is the first research that characterizes the phenomenon of radium transfer in the widely-used method to extract oil and gas. The findings add to what is already generally known about the mechanisms of radium release and could help the search for solutions to challenges in…

Study shows toxic effects of oil dispersant on oysters following deepwater horizon spill — ScienceDaily

Oysters likely suffered toxic effects from the oil dispersant Corexit® 9500 when it was used to clean up the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, said Morris Animal Foundation-funded researchers at the University of Connecticut. The team determined this by comparing the low levels of toxicity of oil, the dispersant and a mixture of the two on Eastern oysters. The team published their findings in the journal Aquatic Toxicology. After the Deepwater Horizon oil rig spilled more than 170 million gallons…

How engineers are working to fill in the gaps

Credit: Shutterstock Potholes are a perennial problem. They are dangerous to road users, and the damage they cause to vehicles can be hugely expensive. The cost of repairing them is also vast. But still they appear, and reappear, in countless places. So why do these pesky crevices pose such a difficult challenge? And is there any light at the end of this pothole-filled tunnel? Potholes often begin as imperceptible microscopic cracks in the road surface. Bad weather, poor drainage and…