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Category: Petroleum Engineering

New material could be the answer to infrastructure woes

Credit: Louisiana State University In the early 1990s, Victor Li, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at the University of Michigan, developed Engineered Cementitious Composites, also known as ductile or bendable concrete. More than 20 years later, researchers at LSU are close to bringing this material to mass adoption, producing a cost-effective ECC that utilizes readily available ingredients. Furthermore, through testing to-date, it has proven far superior to traditional concrete and could greatly improve the transportation infrastructure in this…

Citrate-based biomaterial fuels bone healing with less rejection — ScienceDaily

A material based on a natural product of bones and citrus fruit, called citrate, provides the extra energy that stem cells need to form new bone tissue, according to a team of Penn State bioengineers. Their new understanding of the mechanism that allows citrate to aid in bone regeneration will help the researchers develop slow-release, biodegradable, citrate-releasing scaffolds to act as bone-growth templates to speed up healing in the body. “In our lab, we have been working with citrate for…

Lake Erie algal blooms ‘seeded’ internally by overwintering cells in lake-bottom sediments — ScienceDaily

Western Lake Erie’s annual summer algal blooms are triggered, at least in part, by cyanobacteria cells that survive the winter in lake-bottom sediments, then emerge in the spring to “seed” the next year’s bloom, according to a research team led by University of Michigan scientists. The findings advance scientists’ understanding of the basic biology driving the annual summer blooms, which are both an unsightly nuisance and a potential public health hazard. In addition, the work identifies a mechanism to explain…

New ‘smart’ material with potential biomedical, environmental uses — ScienceDaily

Brown University researchers have shown a way to use graphene oxide (GO) to add some backbone to hydrogel materials made from alginate, a natural material derived from seaweed that’s currently used in a variety of biomedical applications. In a paper published in the journal Carbon, the researchers describe a 3-D printing method for making intricate and durable alginate-GO structures that are far stiffer and more fracture resistant that alginate alone. “One limiting factor in the use of alginate hydrogels is…

Putting the squeeze on soot

Soot particles form complex chain-like structures called fractal aggregates. Credit: Hafiz Amin Running diesel engines and gas turbines at high pressure to boost power output and efficiency is harmful for the environment. Burning fuel at high pressure can significantly change the soot particles that are produced, William Roberts from the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center and his team have shown. Studying the factors affecting soot formation should lead to new ways to curb soot emissions, says Hafiz Amin, first author…

FOREWORD from the “Ramblings of A Chemical Engineer” Book

FOREWORD I was inspired to choose chemical engineering when I first saw the chemical formula from my father’s chemistry book. The chemical formula shapes look fascinating and interesting to me. My father was an organic chemistry lecturer in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). When I was 14, I read his organic chemistry book and willingly learnt from it by myself. When I was 17, I wanted to have a career associated with chemistry. Back then, my first choice was chemical engineering…

Simulation of the forces induced on cylinders by ocean currents could help in the design of off-shore platforms

Modelling vortices in an ocean current around two cylinders could help marine-offshore engineers design better risers. Credit: A*STAR Institute of High Performance Computing A*STAR researchers have developed a model that can simulate the complicated forces exerted by flowing water on an array of cylinders supporting water-borne structures such as oil rigs. The work demonstrates the usefulness of numerical simulations to investigate complex physical real-world scenarios. When designing an off-shore platform, engineers must be able to predict how it will be…

Team improves structural health monitoring with magnetostrictive transducer

Dr. Sergey Vinogradov, an SwRI staff engineer and expert in sensor systems and nondestructive evaluation technology, holds the improved MsT device. The circular, hard-shell MsT sensor clamps around pipes and other metal and nonmetal structures and is available in a variety of circumferences. It detects material flaws, corrosion and areas at risk of developing breaks, cracks and leaks. Credit: Southwest Research Institute A new, more powerful generation of a patented Southwest Research Institute magnetostrictive sensor withstands extreme temperatures, automatically adjusts…

Pair of studies outline innovations that will improve coordination of traffic patterns and save fuel — ScienceDaily

Imagine a daily commute that’s orderly instead of chaotic. Connected and automated vehicles could provide that relief by adjusting to driving conditions with little to no input from drivers. When the car in front of you speeds up, yours would accelerate, and when the car in front of you screeches to a halt, your car would stop, too. At the University of Delaware, Andreas Malikopoulos uses control theory to develop algorithms that will enable this technology of the future. In…

Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth — ScienceDaily

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018 to William D. Nordhaus, Yale University, New Haven, USA “for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis” and Paul M. Romer, NYU Stern School of Business, New York, USA “for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis.” Integrating innovation and climate with economic growth William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer have designed methods for addressing some…