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Category: Petroleum Engineering

Study finds shallow bodies of water were probably more suitable for Earth’s first life forms — ScienceDaily

Primitive ponds may have provided a suitable environment for brewing up Earth’s first life forms, more so than oceans, a new MIT study finds. Researchers report that shallow bodies of water, on the order of 10 centimeters deep, could have held high concentrations of what many scientists believe to be a key ingredient for jump-starting life on Earth: nitrogen. In shallow ponds, nitrogen, in the form of nitrogenous oxides, would have had a good chance of accumulating enough to react…

3-D-printed propeller blade opens the way to eco-friendly shipping

Credit: Tawansak, Shutterstock To make the European maritime industry more competitive globally, innovative materials are needed to improve ships’ performance and make them more environment friendly. In recent years, other industries have made a lot of progress in this area. However, the maritime sector is lagging behind in the adoption of advanced materials that have a smaller environmental footprint and are less costly and easier to maintain. Doing its part to propel the maritime industry forward, the EU-funded project RAMSSES…

New technique reduces time lag between component manufacture and checking precision on CMM

Dr Naeem Mian. Credit: University of Huddersfield Research findings described in a new article by University of Huddersfield scientists will enable engineering firms to make major gains in productivity and efficiency by reducing the often-considerable time-lag between the manufacture of components and checking their precision on a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). To ensure complete accuracy, CMMs are housed in a strictly temperature-controlled environment. But manufacturing processes often lead to big increases or decreases in the temperature of components. Until they…

Theoretical approach for assembling nanoparticles uses an idea similar to separated vinaigrettes — ScienceDaily

Materials scientists at Duke University have theorized a new “oil-and-vinegar” approach to engineering self-assembling materials of unusual architectures made out of spherical nanoparticles. The resulting structures could prove useful to applications in optics, plasmonics, electronics and multi-stage chemical catalysis. The novel approach appeared online on March 25 in the journal ACS Nano. Left to their own tendencies, a system of suspended spherical nanoparticles designed to clump together will try to maximize their points of contact by packing themselves as tightly…

Lightening the load

When part consolidation is leveraged to bring down production costs, additive manufacturing becomes more cost competitive than traditional manufacturing methods. Credit: Pixabay The heavier an aircraft is, the more fuel it needs to stay in flight. Every single part adds to the total weight of the aircraft, from the wings to the engines to the bolts that hold everything together. The many parts that make up a vehicle are traditionally made using various machining processes in which raw materials are…

How electricity-eating microbes use electrons to fix carbon dioxide — ScienceDaily

New research from Washington University in St. Louis explains the cellular processes that allow a sun-loving microbe to “eat” electricity — transferring electrons to fix carbon dioxide to fuel its growth. Led by Arpita Bose, assistant professor of biology in Arts & Sciences, and Michael Guzman, a PhD candidate in her laboratory, a Washington University team showed how a naturally occurring strain of Rhodopseudomonas palustris takes up electrons from conductive substances like metal oxides or rust. The work is described…

Sensor can monitor wiring in a building or ship, and signal when repairs are needed — ScienceDaily

A new system devised by researchers at MIT can monitor the behavior of all electric devices within a building, ship, or factory, determining which ones are in use at any given time and whether any are showing signs of an imminent failure. When tested on a Coast Guard cutter, the system pinpointed a motor with burnt-out wiring that could have led to a serious onboard fire. The new sensor, whose readings can be monitored on an easy-to-use graphic display called…

Everolimus, carboplatin together slow low-grade glioma tumor growth, reduce tumor size — ScienceDaily

A new combination treatment aimed at resistant and recurrent low-grade gliomas slowed tumor growth and killed tumor cells in laboratory and mouse models. Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine combined carboplatin, a standard chemotherapy drug that works well against these brain tumors, and everolimus, which blocks an enzyme called mTOR that was shown in earlier research to fuel the growth of these tumors. The combination increased DNA damage and cell…

When it comes to monarchs, fall migration matters — ScienceDaily

Scientists studying monarch butterflies have traditionally focused on two sources for their decline — winter habitat loss in Mexico and fewer milkweed plants in the Midwest. New research conducted by Michigan State University and published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, shows that a critical piece of the butterfly’s annual cycle was missing — the fall migration. By focusing on this southerly trek, as well as changing the scale at which winter populations are examined, scientists reveal…

Testing space batteries for cleaner skies

This test overcharge of a lithium-ion battery cell at CEA test facilites in France resulted in an explosion. Credit: ESA/Airbus Engineers descended into bunkers to test space batteries to destruction – through overheating, overcharging, short circuits and even by shooting them with bullets. The three-year test campaign is helping assess the risk of abandoned satellites exploding in orbit due to catastrophic battery reactions. Extreme ‘abuse’ testing of the current generation of lithium-ion batteries for space took place in the test…