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Category: Chemical Engineering

Brain development disorders in children linked to common environmental toxin exposures — ScienceDaily

Exposures of pregnant women and children to common thyroid-hormone-disrupting toxins may be linked to the increased incidence of brain development disorders, according to a review published in Endocrine Connections. The review describes how numerous, common chemicals can interfere with normal thyroid hormone actions, which are essential for normal brain development in foetuses and young children, and suggests a need for greater public health intervention. Maternal thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development of children and previous human studies…

Exposure to low levels of BPA during pregnancy can lead to altered brain development — ScienceDaily

New research in mice provides an explanation for how exposure to the widely used chemical bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy, even at levels lower than the regulated “safe” human exposure level, can lead to altered brain development and behavior later in life. The research will be presented Monday, March 19 at ENDO 2018, the 100th annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Chicago, Ill. BPA is a chemical that is added to many commercial products, including water bottles, paper receipts,…

Sunday #chemsafety at #ACSNOLA

Today at the ACS National Meeting in New Orleans: Integrating Research & Safety 1:30 PM Grand Salon D Sec 21, Hilton New Orleans Riverside The psychology of developing a positive chemical safety culture in academic research labs Survey of chemist exposure to VOCs from solvent cabinets Study of safer storage and handling of graphene oxide Effectiveness of laser safety eyewear under real-world conditions Safety at the bench: Promoting positive safety culture in academic laboratories Ask Dr. Safety: Integrating research and…

Making better hair dyes — ScienceDaily

Graphene, a naturally black material, could provide a new strategy for dyeing hair in difficult-to-create dark shades. And because it’s a conductive material, hair dyed with graphene might also be less prone to staticky flyaways. Now, researchers have put it to the test. In an article published March 15 in the journal Chem, they used sheets of graphene to make a dye that adheres to the surface of hair, forming a coating that is resistant to at least 30 washes…

PET myocardial perfusion imaging more effective than SPECT scans in detecting coronary disease — ScienceDaily

Patients who receive cardiac positron emission testing (PET) imaging instead of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan experienced a significant increase in the detection of severe obstructive coronary artery disease, according to researchers at the Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute in Salt Lake City. Both, PET and SPECT scans are nuclear imaging techniques that provide metabolic and functional information of the heart. PET scans provide better image resolution and quality, but have not yet gotten widespread adaptation compared to…

Is your stress changing my brain? Stress isn’t just contagious; it alters the brain on a cellular level — ScienceDaily

In a new study in Nature Neuroscience, Jaideep Bains, PhD, and his team at the Cumming School of Medicine’s Hotchkiss Brain Institute (HBI), at the University of Calgary have discovered that stress transmitted from others can change the brain in the same way as a real stress does. The study, in mice, also shows that the effects of stress on the brain are reversed in female mice following a social interaction. This was not true for male mice. “Brain changes…

Researchers develop optical tools to detect metabolic changes linked to disease

Optical readouts of HL-1 cardiomyocytes in response to chemical uncoupling by CCCP. Redox ratio map for control (left), and CCCP exposed cardiomyocytes (right). Credit: Irene Georgakoudi, Tufts University Metabolic changes in cells can occur at the earliest stages of disease. In most cases, knowledge of those signals is limited, since we usually detect disease only after it has done significant damage. Now, a team led by engineers at Tufts University School of Engineering has opened a window into the cell…

Calcium may play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease — ScienceDaily

Researchers have found that excess levels of calcium in brain cells may lead to the formation of toxic clusters that are the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. The international team, led by the University of Cambridge, found that calcium can mediate the interaction between small membranous structures inside nerve endings, which are important for neuronal signalling in the brain, and alpha-synuclein, the protein associated with Parkinson’s disease. Excess levels of either calcium or alpha-synuclein may be what starts the chain reaction…

The antibiotic cocktail produced by symbiotic bacteria changed very little in the course of evolution and its antipathogenic effect remained unaltered — ScienceDaily

The discovery of penicillin about 90 years ago and the widespread introduction of antibiotics to combat infectious diseases have revolutionized human medicine. However, in recent decades, the increase in multidrug-resistant pathogens has confronted modern medicine with massive problems. Insects have their own antibiotics, which provide natural protection against germs. A team of scientists from the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena have now found that beewolves, unlike humans, do not face…

Scientists image molecules vital for gene regulation — ScienceDaily

All the trillions of cells in our body share the same genetic information and are derived from a single, fertilized egg. When this initial cell multiplies during fetal development, its daughter cells become more and more specialized. This process, called cell differentiation, gives rise to all the various cell types, such as nerve, muscle, or blood cells, which are diverse in shape and function and make up tissues and organs. How can the same genetic blueprint lead to such diversity?…