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Category: Chemical Engineering

Neurons from people with autism exhibit different patterns of growth and develop at a faster rate — ScienceDaily

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a relatively common developmental disorder of communication and behavior that affects about 1 in 59 children in the US, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite its prevalence, it is still unclear what causes the disease and what are the best ways to treat it. Researchers at the Salk Institute compared stem cells created from individuals with ASD against stem cells created from those without ASD to uncover, for the first time,…

A ‘bran’ new way to preserve healthy food with natural ingredients — ScienceDaily

A natural antioxidant found in grain bran could preserve food longer and replace synthetic antioxidants currently used by the food industry, according to researchers at Penn State. “Currently, there’s a big push within the food industry to replace synthetic ingredients with natural alternatives, and this is being driven by consumers,” said Andrew S. Elder, doctoral candidate in food science. “Consumers want clean labels — they want synthetic chemical-sounding ingredients removed because of the fact that they don’t recognize them, and…

Soybean oil driving technology to improve roadways

Engineering sealant technology developed by Purdue University protects and prolongs the life of new and existing concrete. Credit: Indiana Soybean Alliance Holiday drivers who find that roadwork is driving them crazy may find in future years that a Purdue University-affiliated startup can seal the deal for a merrier journey. Environmental Concrete Products is a startup based on a Purdue innovation, with funding for the Indiana Soybean Alliance, which uses engineering sealant technology to protect and prolong the life of new…

MU Engineering researcher speeding up proper antibiotic identification

ImpeDx Diagnostics, a startup co-founded by Shramik Sengupta, Associate Professor of Biomedical, Biological and Chemical Engineering, recently received a National Science Foundation (NSF) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II grant to develop a low-cost system to monitor whether candidate antibiotics are able to effectively kill or prevent the further growth of pathogens. Figuring out which antibiotics will be most effective against a given infection currently takes at least a day, and often longer. A Mizzou Engineering researcher is working…

Mantle neon illuminates Earth’s formation — ScienceDaily

The Earth formed relatively quickly from the cloud of dust and gas around the Sun, trapping water and gases in the planet’s mantle, according to research published Dec. 5 in the journal Nature. Apart from settling Earth’s origins, the work could help in identifying extrasolar systems that could support habitable planets. Drawing on data from the depths of the Earth to deep space, University of California Davis Professor Sujoy Mukhopadhyay and postdoctoral researcher Curtis Williams used neon isotopes to show…

Antioxidants may prevent cognitive impairment in diabetes — ScienceDaily

Cognitive difficulties in patients with diabetes, caused by repeated episodes of low blood sugar, could be reduced with antioxidants, according to a new study presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Glasgow. The study findings suggest that stimulating antioxidant defences in mice reduces cognitive impairments caused by low blood sugar, which could help to improve the quality of life for diabetic patients. Long-term decline in cognitive function, with everyday learning and memory tasks becoming harder and taking longer…

Matching taste with color — ScienceDaily

Color can impact the taste of food, and our experiences and expectations can affect how we taste food, according to Penn State researchers, who suggest this may have implications for how food and beverage industries should market their products. “The color of a beverage can impact how we think it should taste,” said John E. Hayes, associate professor of food science and director, Sensory Evaluation Center, Penn State. “For example, yellow is commonly associated with drinks that are more sour,…

A toast to the proteins in dinosaur bones — ScienceDaily

Burnt toast and dinosaur bones have a common trait, according to a new, Yale-led study. They both contain chemicals that, under the right conditions, transform original proteins into something new. It’s a process that may help researchers understand how soft-tissue cells inside dinosaur bones can survive for hundreds of millions of years. A research team from Yale, the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Brussels, and the University of Bonn announced the discovery Nov. 9 in the journal…

Fluorescent marker can help guide surgeons to remove dangerous brain tumor cells more accurately — ScienceDaily

A chemical that highlights tumour cells has been used by surgeons to help spot and safely remove brain cancer in a trial presented at the 2018 NCRI Cancer Conference. The research was carried out with patients who had suspected glioma, the disease that killed Dame Tessa Jowell, and the most common form of brain cancer. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible, but it can be challenging for surgeons to identify all of the…

Ozone hole modest despite optimum conditions for ozone depletion — ScienceDaily

The ozone hole that forms in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica each September was slightly above average size in 2018, NOAA and NASA scientists reported today. Colder-than-average temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere created ideal conditions for destroying ozone this year, but declining levels of ozone-depleting chemicals prevented the hole from as being as large as it would have been 20 years ago. “Chlorine levels in the Antarctic stratosphere have fallen about 11 percent from the peak year in 2000,” said…