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Category: Chemical Engineering

Fossil site shows impact of early Jurassic’s low oxygen oceans — ScienceDaily

Using a combination of fossils and chemical markers, scientists have tracked how a period of globally low ocean-oxygen turned an Early Jurassic marine ecosystem into a stressed community inhabited by only a few species. The research was led by Rowan Martindale, an assistant professor at The University of Texas at Austin Jackson School of Geosciences, and published in print in Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoeconology on July 15. The study was co-authored by Martin Aberhan, a curator at the Institute for Evolution…

Study indicates concrete construction waste can help rid the air of sulfur dioxide, a major pollutant

This electron microscopy image of concrete includes a model of sulfur dioxide interactions with concrete surface – represented by the colored spheres. Credit: Marija Illoska New research reveals that sulfur dioxide, a major contributor to air pollution, is removed from the air by concrete surfaces. Stony Brook University researcher Alex Orlov, PhD, and colleagues discovered how concrete interacts and eliminates sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Their findings, published in the July edition of the Journal of Chemical Engineering, could be a…

Could concrete help solve the problem of air pollution? — ScienceDaily

New research reveals that sulfur dioxide, a major contributor to air pollution, is removed from the air by concrete surfaces. Stony Brook University researcher Alex Orlov, PhD, and colleagues discovered how concrete interacts and eliminates sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Their findings, published in the July edition of the Journal of Chemical Engineering, could be a significant step toward the practice of using waste concrete to minimize air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, as many as seven million premature…

New mass spectrometry for general use — ScienceDaily

Customs officials want to detect contraband. Doctors want to know how quickly a patient is metabolizing a therapeutic drug. And suppliers of organic products, from nutritional supplements to honey, want to know their raw materials are pure. Each case calls for mass spectrometry — a technique that identifies molecules based on their mass — but current instruments are bulky, expensive, and typically specialize in one class of chemicals, discouraging widespread use outside of a specialized lab setting. Mass spectrometry is…

Black carbon varies, but stubbornly persists, in snow and ice around the world — ScienceDaily

A new University of Colorado Boulder study comparing dissolved black carbon deposition on ice and snow in ecosystems around the world (including Antarctica, the Arctic, and alpine regions of the Himalayas, Rockies, Andes, and Alps) shows that while concentrations vary widely, significant amounts can persist in both pristine and non-pristine areas of snow. Black carbon is the soot-like byproduct of wildfires and fossil fuel consumption, able to be carried long distances via atmospheric transport. Because these black particles absorb more…

Common household chemicals lead to birth defects in mice, research finds — ScienceDaily

A new study at the Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine (VCOM) and the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech has found a connection between common household chemicals and birth defects. Known as quaternary ammonium compounds or “quats,” the chemicals are often used as disinfectants and preservatives in household and personal products such as cleaners, laundry detergent, fabric softener, shampoo and conditioner, and eye drops. The research demonstrated a link between quats and neural tube birth defects in…

Shape, size of DNA lesions caused by toxic agents affects repair of DNA — ScienceDaily

Every day our bodies come under a barrage of toxic agents — cigarette smoke, the sun, free radicals and other carcinogenic substances — that create damaging lesions in our DNA that can initiate cancer and other human diseases. Fortunately, nature has provided living organisms with repair processes to seek out and remove such dangerous lesions; repair allows the DNA to be restored to its original base sequence so it can carry out its fundamental jobs: to be replicated and to…

Toxicants linked to lipid metabolism — ScienceDaily

While working for an environmental nonprofit organization in India, Namrata Sengupta investigated how poor waste management and sanitation practices can impact the environment and public health. Her work sparked an interest in environmental toxicology and led her to Clemson University in 2011 as a doctoral student in the field. Sengupta spent her time in graduate school using Daphnia magna, or water fleas, as model organisms for studying environmental health. She started investigating how these organisms respond to different environmental toxicants.…

Why rocks flow slowly in Earth’s middle mantle — ScienceDaily

For decades, researchers have studied the interior of the Earth using seismic waves from earthquakes. Now a recent study, led by Arizona State University’s School of Earth and Space Exploration Associate Professor Dan Shim, has re-created in the laboratory the conditions found deep in the Earth, and used this to discover an important property of the dominant mineral in Earth’s mantle, a region lying far below our feet. Shim and his research team combined X-ray techniques in the synchrotron radiation…

A marker-free system for tracing mass components

With its “Track & Trace Fingerprint“ Fraunhofer IPM has developed a marker-free system for the traceability of mass components. Credit: Fraunhofer IPM Highly interconnected manufacturing chains, cost issues and technical feasibility make it difficult to trace individual components in mass production. Efficient “track & trace” solutions are, however, an important prerequisite for production and process optimization—especially in the context of digitized manufacturing. With its “Track & Trace Fingerprint” solution, the Fraunhofer-Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM in Freiburg, Germany, has…