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Category: Chemical Engineering

Mantle neon illuminates Earth’s formation — ScienceDaily

The Earth formed relatively quickly from the cloud of dust and gas around the Sun, trapping water and gases in the planet’s mantle, according to research published Dec. 5 in the journal Nature. Apart from settling Earth’s origins, the work could help in identifying extrasolar systems that could support habitable planets. Drawing on data from the depths of the Earth to deep space, University of California Davis Professor Sujoy Mukhopadhyay and postdoctoral researcher Curtis Williams used neon isotopes to show…

Antioxidants may prevent cognitive impairment in diabetes — ScienceDaily

Cognitive difficulties in patients with diabetes, caused by repeated episodes of low blood sugar, could be reduced with antioxidants, according to a new study presented at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Glasgow. The study findings suggest that stimulating antioxidant defences in mice reduces cognitive impairments caused by low blood sugar, which could help to improve the quality of life for diabetic patients. Long-term decline in cognitive function, with everyday learning and memory tasks becoming harder and taking longer…

Matching taste with color — ScienceDaily

Color can impact the taste of food, and our experiences and expectations can affect how we taste food, according to Penn State researchers, who suggest this may have implications for how food and beverage industries should market their products. “The color of a beverage can impact how we think it should taste,” said John E. Hayes, associate professor of food science and director, Sensory Evaluation Center, Penn State. “For example, yellow is commonly associated with drinks that are more sour,…

A toast to the proteins in dinosaur bones — ScienceDaily

Burnt toast and dinosaur bones have a common trait, according to a new, Yale-led study. They both contain chemicals that, under the right conditions, transform original proteins into something new. It’s a process that may help researchers understand how soft-tissue cells inside dinosaur bones can survive for hundreds of millions of years. A research team from Yale, the American Museum of Natural History, the University of Brussels, and the University of Bonn announced the discovery Nov. 9 in the journal…

Fluorescent marker can help guide surgeons to remove dangerous brain tumor cells more accurately — ScienceDaily

A chemical that highlights tumour cells has been used by surgeons to help spot and safely remove brain cancer in a trial presented at the 2018 NCRI Cancer Conference. The research was carried out with patients who had suspected glioma, the disease that killed Dame Tessa Jowell, and the most common form of brain cancer. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible, but it can be challenging for surgeons to identify all of the…

Ozone hole modest despite optimum conditions for ozone depletion — ScienceDaily

The ozone hole that forms in the upper atmosphere over Antarctica each September was slightly above average size in 2018, NOAA and NASA scientists reported today. Colder-than-average temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere created ideal conditions for destroying ozone this year, but declining levels of ozone-depleting chemicals prevented the hole from as being as large as it would have been 20 years ago. “Chlorine levels in the Antarctic stratosphere have fallen about 11 percent from the peak year in 2000,” said…

The can select between the search for sex partners or nutrient sources — ScienceDaily

Unicellular diatoms are able to adapt their behavior to different external stimuli based on an evaluation of their own needs. This was discovered by scientists of the Friedrich Schiller University and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, together with partners from Belgium. The algae depend on nutrients in order to reproduce. However, they also need sexual mates which they find when they follow pheromone traces. In experiments, Seminavis robusta diatoms directed their orientation either towards nutrient…

A team of scientists homes in on a ‘missing link’ in Titan’s one-of-a-kind chemistry — ScienceDaily

Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is unique among all moons in our solar system for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere that also contains hydrocarbons and other compounds, and the story behind the formation of this rich chemical mix has been the source of some scientific debate. Now, a research collaboration involving scientists in the Chemical Sciences Division at the Department of Energy’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has zeroed in on a low-temperature chemical mechanism that may have driven the…

Why does concrete swell and crack?

Concrete structures that have been damaged by AAR (alkali-aggregate reaction) exhibit these typical cracks. The dark color around the edges of the cracks is caused by leaking AAR products. Credit: Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Unfortunately, concrete does not last forever. The ravages of time also take their toll on concrete structures in Switzerland. Not only are reinforced structures like bridges affected, but also concrete buildings without any reinforcement, such as dam walls. One cause is referred…

Smart mud to smooth the way for drilling wells

A model developed by KAUST researchers provides insights into how drilling muds behave within wells and could help the oil industry avoid clogged wells. Credit: Qi Liu & Carlos Santamarina A model that simulates how drilling fluids, or muds, behave and influence the stability of oil wells has been developed by KAUST researchers. Their findings could inform new safety protocols and the design of novel drilling muds. To ensure oil wells are safe and economically viable, it is vital to…